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FRS 102 Contract Revenue Recognition: A Guide for Businesses

For businesses operating under the FRS 102 accounting standard, revenue recognition can be a complex process. The FRS 102 standard sets out specific guidelines for recognizing revenue from contracts with customers.

In this article, we’ll take a closer look at FRS 102 contract revenue recognition, including the key principles and requirements businesses need to follow.

Key Principles of FRS 102 Contract Revenue Recognition

The FRS 102 accounting standard sets out five key principles for recognizing revenue from contracts with customers:

1. Identify the contract: To recognize revenue, a business must have a valid contract with a customer in place, either written or verbal. The contract must include specific terms and conditions, such as the goods or services being provided, payment terms, and delivery timelines.

2. Identify the performance obligations: Once a contract has been established, the business needs to identify the specific goods or services that will be provided to the customer. Each of these goods or services represents a separate performance obligation.

3. Determine the transaction price: The transaction price is the amount the business expects to receive in exchange for providing the goods or services. This price must include all discounts, rebates, and other incentives offered to customers.

4. Allocate the transaction price: If a contract includes multiple performance obligations, the transaction price must be allocated to each obligation based on its relative value.

5. Recognize revenue: Revenue can be recognized when performance obligations are fulfilled, either over time or at a specific point in time.

Requirements for FRS 102 Contract Revenue Recognition

In addition to these principles, there are specific requirements businesses must follow when recognizing revenue under the FRS 102 standard. These include:

1. Disclosure requirements: Businesses must disclose detailed information about their revenue recognition policies, including how they identify contracts, performance obligations, and transaction prices. They must also disclose any significant judgments made during the revenue recognition process.

2. Contract modifications: If a contract is modified after it has been established, the business must reassess its revenue recognition process and adjust as needed.

3. Variable consideration: If the transaction price includes variable consideration, such as performance incentives or penalties, the business must estimate these amounts and revise its revenue recognition process as needed.

4. Timing of revenue recognition: The timing of revenue recognition depends on whether the performance obligations are fulfilled over time or at a specific point in time. Businesses must carefully assess the nature of their contracts to determine the appropriate timing for recognizing revenue.

Benefits of FRS 102 Contract Revenue Recognition

While recognizing revenue under the FRS 102 standard may seem complex, it offers several benefits for businesses. By following a standardized approach to revenue recognition, businesses can:

1. Ensure compliance with accounting standards: FRS 102 is a widely recognized accounting standard that helps businesses ensure they are following best practices for revenue recognition.

2. Improve financial reporting: By following a consistent approach to revenue recognition, businesses can improve the accuracy and transparency of their financial reporting.

3. Avoid legal and financial risks: By carefully assessing their contracts and ensuring they are recognizing revenue correctly, businesses can avoid legal and financial risks associated with non-compliance.


FRS 102 contract revenue recognition is a complex process, but by following the key principles and requirements outlined in the standard, businesses can ensure they are accurately and consistently recognizing revenue. By doing so, they can improve their financial reporting, avoid legal and financial risks, and ensure compliance with accounting standards.